Digital Orthophoto Quarter-Quadrangles

Metadata also available as

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: See Supplemental Information
Title: Digital Orthophoto Quarter-Quadrangles
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Menlo Park, CA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Description:
Abstract:
(SEE SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION SECTION FOR FILE-SPECIFIC INFORMATION.) Digital orthophoto quarter-quads are now available for most of the United States and its Territories. Quarter-quad DOQs cover an area measuring 3.75-minutes longitude by 3.75-minutes latitude. Quarter-quad DOQs are available in both Native and GeoTIFF formats. Native format consists of an ASCII keyword header followed by a series of 8-bit binary image lines for B/W and 24-bit band-interleaved-by-pixel (BIP) for color. DOQs in native format are cast to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection and referenced to either the North American Datum (NAD) of 1927 (NAD27) or the NAD of 1983 (NAD83). GeoTIFF format consists of a georeferenced Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), with all geographic referencing information embedded within the .tif file. DOQs in GeoTIFF format are cast to the UTM projection and referenced to NAD83. The average file size of a B/W quarter quad is 40-45 megabytes, and a color file is generally 140-150 megabytes. Quarter-quad DOQs are distributed on CD-ROM, DVD, 8-mm tape, and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) as uncompressed files.

A downloadable software is available (DOQQ-to-GeoTIFF conversion) which will convert a DOQ image from Native to GeoTIFF format in either NAD27 or NAD83.

Purpose:
Quarter-quad DOQs serve a variety of purposes, from interim maps to field references for Earth science investigations and analysis. The DOQ is useful as a layer of a geographic information system and as a tool for revision of digital line graphs and topographic maps. The data are also useful for soils surveys, landuse, flood plain delineations, conservation practices, water resources planning, soil erosion assessments, watershed analysis, environmental impact assessment, disaster analysis, forestry inventory, and other resources management activities.
Supplemental_Information: (File-specific info)
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: See Supplemental Info
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: In work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Irregular
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -180
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -66
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 71
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 17
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: DOQ
Theme_Keyword: DOQQ
Theme_Keyword: digital orthophoto
Theme_Keyword: digital orthophotoquad
Theme_Keyword: digital image map
Theme_Keyword: aerial photograph
Theme_Keyword: rectified photograph
Theme_Keyword: rectified image
Theme_Keyword: orthophoto
Theme_Keyword: quarter-quadrangle orthophoto
Theme_Keyword: 3.75- x 3.75-minute orthophoto
Theme_Keyword: 7.5- x 7.5-minute orthophoto
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977, Countries, dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and their principal administrative divisions (Federal Information Processing Standard 10-3):Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: US
Place_Keyword: VI
Place_Keyword: PR
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of The United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Place_Keyword: FIPS code of State or Province
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce,1990, Counties and equivalent entities of The United States, its possessions, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 6-4): Washington, D.C. National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Place_Keyword: FIPS code for county or counties
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
None. Acknowledgement of the U. S. Geological Survey efforts would be appreciated in products derived from this data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Customer Services Representative
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: EROS Data Center
Address: 47914 252nd Street
City: Sioux Falls
State_or_Province: SD
Postal_Code: 57198-0001
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 605-594-6151
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 605-594-6589
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: custserv@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0800-1600, CT, -6h GMT, M-F
Contact_Instructions: <http://seamless.usgs.gov>
Browse_Graphic:
Security_Information:
Security_Classification_System: None
Security_Classification: Unclassified
Security_Handling_Description: No special handling requirements.
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows 2000 Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 1; ESRI ArcCatalog 8.3.0.800

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
During photographic reproduction of the source photography, limited analog dodging is performed to improve image quality. Analog dodging consists of holding back light from certain areas of the sensitized photographic material to avoid overexposure. The diapositive is inspected to insure clarity and radiometric uniformity. Diapositive image brightness values are collected with a minimum of image quality manipulation. Image brightness values may deviate from brightness values of the original imagery due to image value interpolation during the scanning and rectification processes. Radiometry is verified by visual inspection of the digital orthophoto quadrangle with the original unrectified image to determine if the digital orthophoto has the same or better image quality as the original unrectified input image. Slight systematic radiometric differences can be detected between adjacent DOQ files due primarily to differences in source photography capture dates and sun angles of aerial photography along flight lines. These differences can be observed in an image's general lightness or darkness when compared to adjacent DOQ file coverages.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
All DOQ header data and image file sizes are validated by the Tape Validation System (TVS) software prior to archival. This validation procedure assures correct physical format and field values for header record elements. Logical relationships between header record elements are tested.
Completeness_Report:
All DOQ imagery is visually inspected for completeness to ensure that no gaps, or image misplacement exist in the 3.75' image area or in overedge coverage. DOQ images may be derived by mosaicking multiple images, in order to insure complete coverage. All DOQs are cloud free within the 3.75' image area. Some clouds may, very infrequently, be encountered only in the overedge coverage. Source photography is predominately leaf-off in deciduous vegetation regions. Leaf-on photography is used only when necessary. Void areas having a radiometric value of zero and appearing black may exist. These are areas for which no photographic source is available or result from image transformation from other planimetric systems to the Universal Transverse Mercator. In the latter case, the void sliver areas are on the outside edges of the overedge area. The data set field content of each DOQ header record element is validated to assure completeness prior to archival.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The DOQ horizontal positional accuracy and the assurance of that accuracy depend, in part, on the accuracy of the data inputs to the rectification process. These inputs consist of the digital elevation model (DEM),aerotriangulation control and methods, the photo source camera calibration, scanner calibration, and aerial photographs that meet National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) standards. The vertical accuracy of the verified USGS format DEM is equivalent to or better than a USGS level 2 DEM, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of no greater than 7.0 meters. Field control is acquired by third order class 1 or better survey methods sufficiently spaced to meet National Map Accuracy Standards (NMAS) for 1:12,000-scale products. Aerial cameras have current certification from the USGS, National Mapping Division, Optical Science Laboratory. Test calibration scans are performed on all source photography scanners. Horizontal positional accuracy is determined by the Orthophoto Accuracy (ORACC) software program for DOQ data produced by the National Mapping Division. The program determines the accuracy by finding the line and sample coordinates of the passpoints in the DOQ and fitting these to their ground coordinates to develop a root mean square error (RMSE). From 4 to 9 points are checked. As a further accuracy test, the image line and sample coordinates of the DEM corners are transformed and compared with the actual X,Y DEM corner values to determine if they are within the RMSE. Additional information on this testing procedure can be found in U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 1993, Technical Instructions, ORACC Users Manual (draft): Reston, VA. Adjacent DOQs, when displayed together in a common planimetric coordinate system, may exhibit slight positional discrepancies across common DOQ boundaries. Linear features, such as streets, may not be continuous. These edge mismatches, however, still conform to positional horizontal accuracy within the NMAS. Field investigations to validate DOQ positional accuracy reliabilty are periodically conducted by the USGS, National Mapping Division, Geometronics Standards Section. DOQs produced by cooperators and contractors use similarly approved RMSE test procedures.
Quantitative_Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Assessment:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Value: 0
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Explanation: unknown
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The vertical accuracy of the verified USGS format DEM is equivalent to or better than a USGS level-1 or -2 DEM.
Quantitative_Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Assessment:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Value: 7
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Explanation: meters
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: digital elevation model
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Type_of_Source_Media: cartridge tape
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: unknown
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM1
Source_Contribution:
Elevation data in the form of an ortho-DEM regridded to user-specified intervals and bounds.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: photo ID number
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: rectified
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Menlo Park, CA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Source_Scale_Denominator: 40000
Type_of_Source_Media: cartridge tape and CD-ROMs
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: unknown
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: PHOTO1
Source_Contribution:
Panchromatic black and white (or color infra-red) NAPP or NAPP-like photograph. NAPP photographs are centered on the DOQ coverage area.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: Unpublished Material
Title: project ground and photo control
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Menlo Park, CA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Type_of_Source_Media: various media
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: unknown
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: CONTROL_INPUT
Source_Contribution:
Horizontal and vertical control used to establish positions and elevations for reference and correlation purposes.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: Unpublished Material
Title: report of calibration
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: rectified
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Menlo Park, CA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Type_of_Source_Media: disc, paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: unknown
Source_Currentness_Reference:
Date of the camera calibration associated with the source photography
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: CAMERA_INPUT
Source_Contribution: camera calibration parameters
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The production procedures, instrumentation, hardware and software used in the collection of standard USGS DOQs vary depending on systems used at the contract, cooperator or USGS production sites. The majority of DOQ datasets are acquired through government contract. The process step describes, in general, the process used in the production of standard USGS DOQ data sets. The rectification process requires, as input, a user parameter file to control the rectification process, a digital elevation model (DEM1) gridded to user specified bounds, projection, zone, datum and X-Y units, a scanned digital image file (PHOTO1) covering the same area as the DEM, ground X-Y-Z point values (CONTROL_INPUT) and their conjugate photo coordinates in the camera coordinate system, and measurements of the fiducial marks (CAMERA_INPUT) in the digitized image. The camera calibration report (CAMERA_INPUT) provides the focal length of the camera and the distances in millimeters from the camera's optical center to the camera's 8 fiducial marks. These marks define the frame of reference for spatial measurements made from the photograph. Ground control points (CONTROL_INPUT) acquired from ground surveys or developed in aerotriangulation, are third order class 1 or better, and meet National Map Accuracy Standard (NMAS) for 1:12,000-scale. Ground control points are in the Universal Transverse Mercator or the State Plane Coordinate System on NAD83. Horizontal and vertical residuals of aerotriangulated tie-points are equal to or less than 2.5 meters. Standard aerotriangulation passpoint configuration consists of 9 ground control points, one near each corner, one at the center near each side and 1 near the center of the photograph, are used. The conjugate positions of the ground control points on the photograph are measured and recorded in camera coordinates.

The raster image file (PHOTO_1) is created by scanning an aerial photograph film diapositive with a precision image scanner. An aperture of approximately 25 to 32 microns is used, with an aperture no greater than 32 microns permitted. Using 1:40,000-scale photographs, a 25-micron scan aperture equates to a ground resolution of 1-meter. The scanner converts the photographic image densities to gray scale values ranging from 0 to 255 for black and white photographs. Scan files with ground resolution less than 1 meter or greater than 1 meter but less than 1.28 meters are resampled to 1 meter. The principal elevation data source (DEM1) are standard DEM datasets from the Operational Database (ODB). DEM's that meet USGS standards are also produced by contractors to fulfill DOQ production requirements and are subsequently archived. All DEM data is equivalent to or better than USGS DEM standard level 1. The DEM used in the production of DOQ's generally has a 30-meter grid post spacing and possesses a vertical RMSE of 7-meters or less. A DEM covering the extent of the photograph is used for the rectification. The DEM is traversed from user-selected minimum to maximum X-Y values and the DEM X-Y-Z values are used to find pixel coordinates in the digitized photograph using transformations mentioned above. For each raster image cell subdivision, a brightness or gray-scale value is obtained using nearest neighbor, bilinear, or cubic convolution resampling of the scanned image. The pixel processing algorithm is indicated in the header file . An inverse transformation relates the image coordinates referenced to the fiducial coordinate space back to scanner coordinate space. For those areas for which a 7.5-minute DEM is unavailable and relief differences are less than 150 feet, a planar-DEM (slope-plane substitute grid) may be used.

Rectification Process: The photo control points and focal length are iteratively fitted to their conjugate ground control points using a single photo space resection equation. From this mathematical fit is obtained a rotation matrix of constants about the three axes of the camera. This rotation matrix can then be used to find the photograph or camera coordinates of any other ground X-Y-Z point. Next a two dimensional fit is made between the measured fiducial marks on the digitized photograph and their conjugate camera coordinates. Transformation constants are developed from the fit and the camera or photo coordinates are used in reverse to find their conjugate pixel coordiates on the digitized photograph.

Quality Control: All data are inspected according to a quality control plan. DOQ contractors must meet DOQ standards for attribute accuracy, logical consistency, data completeness and horizontal positional accuracy. During the initial production phase, all rectification inputs and DOQ data sets are inspected for conformance to standards. All DOQs are visually inspected for gross positional errors and tested for physical format standards.

Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM1
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: PHOTO 1
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: CONTROL_INPUT
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: CAMERA_INPUT
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey Earth Science Information Center
Contact_Position: Technical Contact
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 345 Middlefield Road
City: Menlo Park
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 94025
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 650-329-4390
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 650-329-5130
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Metadata imported into ARC for reprocessing and display on USGS Seamless website.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: EDC/pj
Process_Date: 20031006
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Customer Services Representative
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: EROS Data Center
Address: 47914 252nd Street
City: Sioux Falls
State_or_Province: SD
Postal_Code: 57198-0001
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 605-594-6151
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 605-594-6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: custserv@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0800-1600, CT, -6h GMT, M-F
Contact_Instructions: <http://seamless.usgs.gov>

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Pixel
Row_Count: 7751
Column_Count: 6144
Vertical_Count: 1

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 10-19
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: .09996
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: zone variable
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
False_Easting: 500000
False_Northing: 0.0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 1
Ordinate_Resolution: 1
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
For DOQs from panchromatic source each pixel contains an 8-bit gray-scale value between 0-255. A value of 0 represents the color black while a value of 255 represents the color white. All values between 0 and 255 are repesented as a shade of gray varying from black to white. For color-infrared and natural color DOQs, a digital number from 0 to 255 will also be asssigned to each pixel, but that number will refer to a color look-up table which will contain the RGB red, blue and green (RGB) values, each from 0 to 255, for that digital number. Areas where the rectification process is incomplete due to incomplete data (i.e., lack of elevation data, gaps), are represented with the numeric value of 0.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 1992, Standards for digital orthophotos: Reston, VA.

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: USGS EROS Data Center
Address: 47914 252nd Street
City: Sioux Falls
State_or_Province: SD
Postal_Code: 57198-0001
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 605-594-6151
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 605-594-6589
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: custserv@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0800-1600, CT, -6h GMT, M-F
Contact_Instructions: <http://seamless.usgs.gov>
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the USGS, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the USGS regarding the use of thsee data on any other system, nor does the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS will warrant the delivery of this product in omputer-readable format and will offer appropriate adjustment of credit when the product is determined unreadable by correctly adjusted computer input peripherals or when the physical medium is delivered in damaged condition. Requests for adjustment of credit must be made within 60 days from the date of this shipment from the order site.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: USGS_DOQ
Format_Information_Content:
The standard, archived, quarter-quadrangle DOQ is uncompressed and is approximately 45-50 Mb in size.
File_Decompression_Technique: no compression applied
Transfer_Size: 2.273
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: edcftp.usgs.gov
Access_Instructions:
After an order has been placed, paid for, and the files have been staged on the FTP site, you will receive an e-mail message with User Code and Password. This process usually takes 24 to 48 hours. The data are usually available for access via FTP for 5 days from the creation of this message. When you enter the correct password, you will be automatically placed into the directory containing your data. You may want to check your download transfer rate as this will give you an idea of how long it will take to download each file. Average size per DOQ file is 50 Mb for black and white and 150 Mb for color infrared.
Offline_Option:
Offline_Media: CD-ROM
Recording_Capacity:
Recording_Density: 700
Recording_Density_Units: megabytes
Recording_Format: ISO 9660
Compatibility_Information:
This CD-ROM can be used with all computer operating systems that support CD-ROM as a logical storage device. All text files on this disc are in ASCII format. Data files are in ASCII or binary format.
Fees:
There is a base charge of $45.00 per order, plus $5.00 shipping, plus $7.50 for each black and white (grayscale) 3.75 x 3.75 DOQ purchased or $15.00 for each color DOQ. Any combination of files can be ordered.
Ordering_Instructions:
The USGS distributes uncompressed DOQs on Compact Disc-Recordable (CD-R). Either Geotiff or native format can be specified. DOQ orders are filled on demand. There is a base charge of $45.00 per order, plus $5.00 shipping, plus $7.50 for each black and white (grayscale) 3.75 x 3.75 DOQ purchased or $15.00 for each color DOQ. Any combination of files can be ordered.
Turnaround: CD-ROM, DVD, and 8-mm tape 1-3 weeks and FTP 1-3 days
Available_Time_Period:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: See Supplemental Info

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20031016
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: EROS Data Center
Contact_Person: Archive & Production Resources
Contact_Position: Technical Specialist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: USGS EROS Data Center
Address: 47914 252nd Street
City: Sioux Falls
State_or_Province: South Dakota
Postal_Code: 57198-0001
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 605.594.6151
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 605.594.6589
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: meta@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0800-1600, CT, -6h GMT, M-F
Contact_Instructions: <http://seamless.usgs.gov>
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Metadata_Access_Constraints: None
Metadata_Use_Constraints: None
Metadata_Security_Information:
Metadata_Security_Classification_System: None
Metadata_Security_Classification: Unclassified
Metadata_Security_Handling_Description: None
Metadata_Extensions:
Online_Linkage: <http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html>
Profile_Name: ESRI Metadata Profile
Metadata_Extensions:
Online_Linkage: <http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html>
Profile_Name: ESRI Metadata Profile

Generated by mp version 2.7.33 on Thu Oct 16 14:08:22 2003